This period began with the decline of the elven and dwarven empires and the flourishing and expansion of the human empires. These new, expanding empires included Calimshan, Imaskar, Jhaamdath, Mezro, Mulhorand, Netheril, Narfell, Raumathar, and Unther.
Of these human empires, that of Netheril represented the genesis of this epoch. Thanks to the discovery of the nether scrolls, they were launched into history. Around −3000 DR, the Archmage Ioulaum raised the first enclave of Netheril, Xinlenal, through his newly fashioned mythallar. However, all of these human empires left their indellible mark on the Realms, and the influence of their actions was felt for centuries afterward, as three of these nations - Calimshan, Mulhorand, and Unther - survived past this era, albeit in forms much different than seen in this epoch.
- Circa −3000 DR: The burgeoning human clans of the northern Sword Coast band together under a single leader and found Illusk.
- −2954 DR: Ioulaum raises the first Netherese Enclave, Xinlenal.
- −2770 DR: King Connar IV of Ammarindar and his legion defeat the monsters invading the High Forest and defeat the red dragon Rithaerosurffel.
- −2758 DR: The Netherese form a magocracy consisting of the major arcanists of Netheril called the High Mages of Netheril.
- −2600 DR: The last of the Shanatar dwarves fall to the invading Coramshan Empire and seal off the last remaining surface entrance to Deep Shanatar. Also, the drow began work on the Twisted Tower of Ashaba.
- −2489 DR: Deities of the slaves of the Imaskari breach the planar barrier by sending avatars to Toril, led by the deity Ptah. The avatars went among the slaves and inspired them, through their divine power, to revolt against their masters.
- −2488 DR: The Imaskar empire is destroyed and Horus-Re kills Lord Artificer Yuvaraj, the Emperor of Imaskar. The destruction that poured out of this conflict caused the area to become the Raurin Desert.[note 1]
- −2487 DR: The former Mulan slaves migrate out of the desert, becoming the folk of Mulhorand and Unther. At the same time, the Imaskari refugees flee to the Underdark, taking the Third Imaskarcana with them.
- -2482 DR: The Netherese House of Orogoth constructed a fortified villa in the southern part of High Moor in hopes of procuring the power of the dragons that were known to be there. It is claimed, in legend, that they did obtain it in some way. Their research there also led to the Serpent Curse.
- -2481 DR: Ilphemon, a lord of Imaskar, founded the city of Deep Imaskar in the Earthroot section of the Underdark.
- -2436 DR: An unknown Netherese thief returns seven of the nether scrolls to the ancient ruins of the Iqua-Tel'Quessir. Three of the scrolls are placed in the Hall of Mists, two are placed in the Crypt of Hssthak, and the remaining two's locations, as of yet, are unknown.
- -2387 DR: The Netherese release of their gnome slaves.
- -2381 DR: Beholders descend upon the Alimir Mountains and the bakkal of Calimshan is assassinated, effectively ending the Tavhir dynasty.
- -2375 DR: Netherese scouts begin surveying what is now the Sword Coast North at the behest of Arthindol the Terraseer.
- -2368 DR: Quesseer is founded, by Arthindol, to the north of the Sword Mountains. It becomes a center of trade for the peoples of Illusk, Illefarn, the Ice Hunters of the North, and the fallen Haunghdannar.
- -2300 DR: Raurinese refugees continue to expand along the coasts of the Sea of Fallen Stars. At the same time, the Orogoth's servants succumb to the Serpent Curse and become a snake-like race of humanoids known as Ophidians. These affected people are driven into the western hills by the Netherese.
- -2207 DR: Jeriah Chronos was born.
- -2135 DR: The Mulan, the former slaves of the Imaskari, founded Skuld with the aid of Re, which later became the capital of Mulhorand.
- -2103 DR: A myriad of monsters consisting of giants, ogres, and orcs from the Spine of the World descend upon Illusk, destroying it despite the efforts of the Jeriah Chronos and his fellow arcanists.
- -2100 DR: The remaining Illuskans traveled north, into the Icewind Dale, where they remained, and their posterity became the Reghedmen.
- -2095 DR: Jeriah Chronos dies of injuries sustained during the failed defense of Illusk, albeit it could have been avoided had he accepted divine healing magics. In this same year, the Netherese settlement of Quesseer is abandoned.
- -2087 DR: Enlil, deity of the Untheric peoples, discovers pearls on the coast of Alamber, and founded Unthalass, which became the capital of Unther.[note 2]
- -1967 DR: The First Mulhorand-Unther War erupts at the River of Swords. Ancient tribes of Rashemen are used as mercenaries on both sides of the war.
- -1961 DR: Enlil and Re concur that the border between their two nations, Unther and Mulhorand respectively, will be the River of Swords.
- -1931 DR: The Idol of Nomog-Geaya and its hobgoblin servitors were destroyed by the Calimshan Empire. The valley in which this event took place came to be known as the Gorge of the Fallen Idol.
- -1900 DR: By this time, the Calimshan Empire encompassed the original lands of the Calim Empire and Coramshan, Tethyr, Mir, and Iltkazar. It ought to also be noted that, around this same time, the Caltazar Hills came to be assaulted by the beholder nations on a regular basis.
- -1896 DR: Twenty-four of the nether scrolls that had managed to be safekept by the arcanists of Netheril were stolen from a caravan that was en route to Eileanar, otherwise known as Karsus' Enclave.[note 3]
- -1838 DR: As revenge for their assaults on her lair and hoard, the red dragon Ylveraasahlisar "the Rose Dragon," unleashes her fury on the entirety of Calimshan, bringing the city of Calimport, and much of its surroundings, to ruin. She then ruled the Empire, from her newly rebuilt lair in Calimport, with an iron fist.
- -1732 DR: The enslaved human tribes of the Lapal move into what became the Halruaa basin after having had to escape from the Yuan-ti in the jungles of Serpentes, which eventually became known as The Black Jungles and the Mhair Jungle.
- -1726 DR: The Cajaan noble, Rafak al Cajaan, led a team of warriors into the lair of Ylveraasahlisar and managed to inflict a great amount of wounds to the red dragon before she attempted to escape. Yet, as she was doing so, the bronze dragon Cadasalmpar, an ally of Rafak, assaulted her and killed her. Rafak was then made the nation's new emperor, reestablishing human
rule of Calimshan and the surrounding territories.
- ↑ Horus-Re, at this time, was actually only Horus, as his father, Re, had not passed and therefore had not bequeathed his portfolio or powers to Horus yet. Horus-Re, however, is Horus for all intents and purposes of this article.
- ↑ Enlil and Re were god-kings; they were the physical rulers, as well as the deities, of their respective realms.
- ↑ The exact details of this event are somewhat obscure, but the loss of the remaining scrolls at this time is considered indisputable.
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- ↑ Bruce R. Cordell, Ed Greenwood, Chris Sims (August 2008). Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 43. ISBN 978-0-7869-4924-3.
- ↑ Ed Greenwood, Eric L. Boyd, Darrin Drader (July 2004). Serpent Kingdoms. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 187. ISBN 0-7869-3277-5.
- ↑ Ed Greenwood, Sean K. Reynolds, Skip Williams, Rob Heinsoo (June 2001). Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting 3rd edition. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 261. ISBN 0-7869-1836-5.
- ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 Richard Baker, Ed Bonny, Travis Stout (February 2005). Lost Empires of Faerûn. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 97. ISBN 0-7869-3654-1.
- ↑ Richard Baker, Ed Bonny, Travis Stout (February 2005). Lost Empires of Faerûn. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 84. ISBN 0-7869-3654-1.
- ↑ Reynolds, Forbeck, Jacobs, Boyd (March 2003). Races of Faerûn. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 18. ISBN 0-7869-2875-1.
- ↑ Richard Baker, Ed Bonny, Travis Stout (February 2005). Lost Empires of Faerûn. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 115. ISBN 0-7869-3654-1.
- ↑ Steven E. Schend and Kevin Melka (1998). Cormanthyr: Empire of the Elves. (TSR, Inc), p. 34. ISBN 0-7069-0761-4.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Richard Baker, Ed Bonny, Travis Stout (February 2005). Lost Empires of Faerûn. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 61. ISBN 0-7869-3654-1.
- ↑ Eric L. Boyd (1997). Powers and Pantheons. (TSR, Inc), p. 94. ISBN 0-7869-0657-X.
- ↑ Ed Greenwood, Sean K. Reynolds, Skip Williams, Rob Heinsoo (June 2001). Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting 3rd edition. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 269. ISBN 0-7869-1836-5.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 Ed Greenwood, Sean K. Reynolds, Skip Williams, Rob Heinsoo (June 2001). Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting 3rd edition. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 267. ISBN 0-7869-1836-5.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Ed Greenwood, Eric L. Boyd, Darrin Drader (July 2004). Serpent Kingdoms. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 111. ISBN 0-7869-3277-5.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Ed Greenwood, Sean K. Reynolds, Skip Williams, Rob Heinsoo (June 2001). Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting 3rd edition. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 268. ISBN 0-7869-1836-5.
- ↑ Steven E. Schend (1999). Sea of Fallen Stars. (TSR, Inc), p. 5. ISBN 0-7869-1393-2.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 slade, James Butler (November 1996). Netheril: Empire of Magic (The Winds of Netheril). (TSR, Inc.), p. 109. ISBN 0-7869-0437-2.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Scott Bennie (1990). Old Empires. (TSR, Inc), p. 5. ISBN 0-8803-8821-8.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 Reynolds, Forbeck, Jacobs, Boyd (March 2003). Races of Faerûn. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 92. ISBN 0-7869-2875-1.
- ↑ Richard Baker, Ed Bonny, Travis Stout (February 2005). Lost Empires of Faerûn. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 137. ISBN 0-7869-3654-1.
- ↑ Ed Greenwood, Julia Martin, Jeff Grubb (1993). Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting 2nd edition (revised). (TSR, Inc). ISBN 1-5607-6617-4.
- ↑ Richard Baker, Matt Forbeck, Sean K. Reynolds (May 2003). Unapproachable East. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 140. ISBN 0-7869-2881-6.
- ↑ Ed Greenwood, Julia Martin, Jeff Grubb (1993). Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting 2nd edition (revised), Running the Realms. (TSR, Inc), p. 14. ISBN 1-5607-6617-4.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 Steven E. Schend (October 1998). Calimport. (TSR, Inc), p. 14. ISBN 0-7869-1238-3.
- ↑ Thomas Reid (October 2004). Shining South. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 132. ISBN 0-7869-3492-1.
- ↑ Ed Greenwood, Eric L. Boyd, Darrin Drader (July 2004). Serpent Kingdoms. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 102. ISBN 0-7869-3277-5.