Drums were a group of percussion instruments dating back a very long way[1] and used by many races.[3][4][5] They were all characterized by a membrane, usually made of skin, which was spanned tightly over some kind of hollow resonating body to create sound.[1]


Known varieties were kettledrums, side drums, bass drums, gong drums, bongos, tom-toms, cylinder drums, the changoo, talking drums, slit drums[1] and hand drums.[6] Special variants used in Zakhara were tapered drums[7] or darbukkah, elephant drums, jahlah, the naqqarah, qas'ah baladi, and the tabl.[8] The Iulutiuns had a drum called kilat made of a sealskin over a circle of wood or bone.[9]



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Blake Mobley (1992). The Complete Bard's Handbook. (TSR, Inc.), pp. 87–88, 92–93. ISBN 1-56076-360-4.
  2. Mike Mearls, Jeremy Crawford (2014). Player's Handbook 5th edition. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 154. ISBN 978-0-7869-6560-1.
  3. Ed Greenwood (October 1990). Dwarves Deep. (TSR, Inc.). ISBN 0-88038-880-3.
  4. Eric L. Boyd (1999). Drizzt Do'Urden's Guide to the Underdark. (TSR, Inc), p. 63. ISBN 0-7869-1509-9.
  5. Ed Greenwood (March 1987). “The Ecology of the Korred”. In Roger E. Moore ed. Dragon #119 (TSR, Inc.), pp. 42–44.
  6. Jeff Grubb, Julia Martin, Steven E. Schend et al (1992). Aurora's Whole Realms Catalogue. (TSR, Inc), p. 26. ISBN 0-5607-6327-2.
  7. Lisa Smedman (February 1994). “Magic to a Different Beat”. In Kim Mohan ed. Dragon #202 (TSR, Inc.), pp. 10–14.
  8. Jeff Grubb (February 1993). “Sounds of Wonder & Delight”. In Roger E. Moore ed. Dragon #190 (TSR, Inc.), pp. 84–88.
  9. Rick Swan (1992). The Great Glacier. (TSR, Inc), p. 29. ISBN 1-56076-324-8.

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