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Ulgarth was a feudal kingdom located in southeast Faerûn, east of Durpar and the Golden Water.[7][1]

Environment & GeographyEdit

Ulgarth occupied an area along the eastern shore of the Golden Water and north of the Great Sea, just before the barbarian-inhabited plains of the Utter East began. It was bordered by the Dustwall Mountains in the north and the Silaviul Mountains in the south. Although a part of the Golden Water region, it was not part of the Shining Lands of Durpar and Var the Golden which lay to the west. It was a geographically bounded and isolated land.[7][1][9] Ulgarth derived a great deal of its prosperity from the bay of the Golden Water.[7]

The small range of the Galuil Mountains stood in the northern part of the realm, beside the Golden Water. By 1358 DR, many Ulgarthan citizens had settled in the hills and lower slopes of the mountains. They worked in the gold and iron mines, and cultivated fruit and lumber that grew better at the cooler heights of the mountains.[10]

Many mingari farms lay in the fertile lands in the eastern part of the country, particularly around Kaspar.[11]

Several roads and trails linked the cities of Ulgarth, including Barbarians' Road from Dralpur to Kellesar, and Noble's Road that linked Dralpur and Orvyltar.[7][12]


Ulgarth had a hot climate, but its closeness to the Golden Water and the Great Sea mitigated the temperature and made it habitable, even inland. Daytime temperatures were 80–100 °F (26–38 °C) but night in the winter rainy season saw the temperature decrease to less than 60 °F (15 °C). Conditions were generally humid and the land saw almost daily rainfall. As result, the fields were rich and highly fertile and crops were abundant.[7][1]

Geographical featuresEdit

Dustwall MountainsGaluil MountainsSilaviul Mountains
Copper BayGolden WaterXontuil Bay
Stony Waste
River Xon



Founded during the height of the Imaskar Empire (−7975 DR to −6788 DR), the realm of Ulgarth was annexed and then settled by the Imaskari.[7][13] At the time, the lands around the Golden Water were fertile and home to nomadic human tribes like the ancient Durpari,[14] and the Imaskari subjugated these peoples.[15]

Around roughly −2700 DR, the peoples of these lands constructed the Gate of Iron as a barrier against the approaching Imaskari forces. They worked to the instructions of master dwarven architects and collected all the precious iron in the iron-poor land to forge the gates. One mage even gave their life to cast the spell that protected them from magical assault.[16][note 1]

In −2488 DR, the empire of Imaskar collapsed, and without leadership all the subject-states of the Golden Water failed and descended into barbarism,[14] with the Durpari reverting to a nomadic lifestyle.[15] Like the other failed states of the empire, Ulgarth fell and suffered through centuries of dark barbarism. Several times, war-chiefs rose to power, uniting the country but only fighting numerous skirmishes and petty wars with rival barbarian tribes of the Shining South, particularly in the lands of Durpar and Var the Golden. In these dark ages, these was no commercial or technological development of note. Only the Durpari learned to defend themselves.[5][1]

The Gate of Iron was opened and closed for the last time sometime around −1700 DR.[16][note 2]

Around that time, the famous Ulgarian prince Surtava abandoned his crown, his power, and his wealth to become a beggar and leave his kingdom to seek enlightenment and wisdom. After many years, he achieved his quest, ascending to become the Padhra and founding the Padhran faith.[17][note 3]

Early historyEdit

From the Year of Bitter Fruit, −83 DR, Ulgarthan barbarians started raiding the cities of the Durpari, who had civilized much earlier than the Ulgarthans. These raids would continue for the next thousand years.[14][18]

The Mulan people, former slaves whose uprising had brought down Imaskar, had since founded their own empire, Mulhorand. For millennia, Mulhorand had launched genocidal wars against the southern tribes.[15] In the Year of the Fanged Gauntlet, 202 DR, Mulhorandi forces came for the Ulgarthans, and nearly wiped out the barbarian tribes.[5] All this fighting had cut the Ulgarthan population to a fraction of its former size, and at last they wearied of warfare,[1] though skirmishes and raids into Durpar continued.[14][18]

However, in the Year of the Dagger, 348 DR, a band of outlaws fleeing from Mulhorandi justice sought refuge in Ulgarth, finding it depopulated yet still fertile. They settled the area and began to grow crops and raise families. This new Ulgarthan society steadily grew stronger.[5] However, it focused on agriculture, not warfare, nor trade and philosophy like Durpar. The Ulgarthans developed a highly structured caste system that, over time, evolved into a feudal monarchy.[1][5]

Nevertheless, raids and skirmishes with Durpar continued until the two nations at last reached parity in power. Abandoning dreams of conquering each other, Ulgarth and Durpar negotiated an armed truce in the Year of the Heavenly Rock, 1002 DR. Remaining suspicious after a millennium of conflict, each nation built a well-defended border.[5][14][18][19]

Eventually, the two nations learned to understand one another and warily began to pursue more peaceful relations by the 14th century DR.[1] Trade between Ulgarth and the prosperous merchants of Durpar began, proving vital to both realms. King Drasna Bluemantle and his predecessor both pursued policies of non-aggression with Durpar.[5]


At some point, King Caladorn the Wise decreed that priests should not be allowed to judge a person's worldly behavior and thus they could not serve as justices.[5]

One of the most dangerous and notorious bandits in Ulgarth was Maelin Rascalin until he was captured with great effort. Convicted, Maelin elected to serve his sentence in the army, where he remained after he'd done his time. Quickly promoted, Maelin became commander of the entire east defense force. Repeatedly, he repelled invading barbarian hordes from the east, including resisting an attack over a thousand barbarians. As one of Ulgarth's greatest generals, he was ennobled by the king and awarded the barony of Suormpar.[20][11]

Modern historyEdit

By 1358 DR, warnings circulated that the gray orcs of the Dustwall Mountains were gathering in preparation for a major assault or raids into Ulgarth. A horde of thousands of orcs was expected. The worried barons of Kaspar and Suormpar, and the leaders of Flyndagol in Durpar, began recruiting solders, even mercenaries, to bolster their defenses.[1][2][21]

The Ulgarthan and dwarf miners pursuing veins of gold in the Galuil Mountains were projected to encounter the duergar following the same veins around 1361 DR, which would almost certainly lead to conflict.[6]


The realm of Ulgarth was a traditional feudal monarchy, ruled by a king or queen from the capital city of Orvyltar. Around 1358 DR, King Drasna Bluemantle, known as "the Fortunate", held power. Below the king, the governance of Ulgarth was highly localized. The kingdom comprised six baronies, whose leaders all reported directly to the king in Orvyltar. The barons had almost complete autonomy over their realms in the areas of war and justice.[1][5] Around 1358 DR, five of baronies and their barons were:

King Drasna was dedicated to being a good ruler and a firm believer in no one being denied the king's justice. He would give his merciful judgment to any who asked. He toured the realm regularly, visiting each city once a year at least. He also officiated at grand ceremonies where he knighted the worthy. Drasna was highly popular with his subjects, who as a result believed completely in the kingdom's feudal system.[6]


Although Ulgarth was geographically a part of the Golden Water lands, it stood very much apart in terms of society, culture, and politics enough that it was a wholly separate realm. Constrained by the Golden Water in the west, by the Great Sea in the south, by the Dustwall Mountains in the north, and by the great plains of the Utter East in the east, it was in many ways also an isolated realm.[1] Although a peaceful and stable kingdom in the 1300s DR, it was highly nationalistic and even paranoid about its neighbors, standing ready to defend itself against all threads.[7][2]

The closest and yet bitterest relationship Ulgarth had was with Durpar across the Golden Water. Centuries of raids and skirmishes between the two came to an end as a balance of power was achieved, dreams of conquest were abandoned, and an armed truce was signed in 1002 DR. However, neither side could forget their history of conflict, and so they remained wary and guarded. By the mid–14th century DR, however, they'd learned to understand each other and saw greater benefits in trade than in battle. Leaders in both realms worked to maintain friendly relations; both King Drasna and his father had policies of non-aggression toward the Durpari.[1][5][22] The Durpari meanwhile saw Ulgarth as a long-term threat also a potential partner in trade,[23] but apparently made frequent attempts to control its economy.[7] Along with Var the Golden, both nations maintained a clearly defined, heavily fortified, and well-defended border against each other, lying along the River Xon and Xontuil Bay.[7][1][5][24]

To the east, Ulgarth was threatened by the Horde barbarians, who often raided its cities.[7][2] Furthermore, in the north, the gray orcs of the Dustwall Mountains also frequently raided the kingdom. [1][2]

However, the true foe of the whole Shining Lands was Dambrath. Crinti pirates often raided Ulgarth's shores, as they did the other nations around the Golden Water.[7][22]

Around 1359 DR, Ambuchar Devayam, the dark tyrant of Solon, a city in the Raurin desert north of the realm, cut all communications between Ulgarth and the Hordelands to the north.[25] To the peoples of the Hordelands, the lands beyond the Gate of Iron—Ulgarth, Durpar, and points further south—were strange and incredible places. They told of mages without bodies and gods that lived like mortals, of islands that rose and fell beneath the waves and valleys filled with gems.[26]

Around 1479 DR, most folk of northern Faerûn thought Ulgarth, Durpar, and Estagund were all a part of the Beastlands of Veldorn.[27][note 5]


As Ulgarth was surrounded on almost all sides by either empty land or water, most of its trade came from its only neighbor and former enemy, Durpar, which was fortunately one of the great mercantile empire of Faerûn. Despite their long history of conflict, Durpar saw Ulgarth as a potential trading partner. Ulgarth was also the only source of the rare and valued spice mingari, which helped good relations along. Through Durpar, Ulgarth also traded with the other nations of the Shining Lands; this was the source of almost all of the kingdom's commerce, trade, and prosperity, and was vital to both realms.[7][1][8][23]

Ulgarth produced most of the items that Durpar traded to its more distant trading partners around the world, particularly mingari and foodstuffs from its crops, which were exported across southern Faerûn. In turn, Ulgarth imported more exotic items, both those produced in Durpar and those found by the Durpari further abroad.[7][1][8][28] Durpar's wily merchants tended to get the best in any deal Ulgarth made with them, but the closeness of the two realms slashed overheads and travel costs, so Ulgarthan merchants tended to get the best prices the Durpari had to offer.[7][8] By the mid–14th century DR, the Ulgarthans had staved off Durpar's repeated efforts to gain control over Ulgarth's economy.[7]

Ulgarth's primary export was mingari, a strong cinnamon-like spice. It was the only place in the world that produced it and it used that monopoly to its advantage.[7][8][29] Mingari was farmed in eastern Ulgarth, particularly around Kaspar and east of Kelazzan. It was traded through Orvyltar to Durpar,[11] where the Karikal chaka in Morvar had a primary interest in the mingari trade.[30] Mingari was in great demand in Durpar and by 1358 DR it had begun to be introduced to the rest of Faerûn.[8] The Durpari shipped the mingari across the Shining South.[7]

Coffee sold in Halruaa around 1358 DR was said to come from Ulgarth. It was also said Ulgarth was where the only true coffee was grown.[31] However, the Shining Lands of Durpar, Estagund, and Var the Golden also claimed this honor.[32][note 6]

In return, through the far-reaching Durpari traders, Ulgarth received a variety of goods from Durpar and from around the known world. These ranged from Durpar's own foodstuffs, spices, and textiles, to the excellent Dambraii horses of Dambrath, to luxuries like fine silks from Calimshan and even produce imported from distant Maztica.[2][8]

Ulgarth minted its own currency, the lieko, a gold coin very much like the standard gold piece. These bore images of King Caladorn the Wise (the front) and a mounted knight (the back). However, thanks to heavy trade with Durpar, Ulgarthans also accepted as a basic currency the vellim, the silver trade bars of Durpar that were widely used across the Shining South.[8]


Ulgarth 2

Ulgarthan knights battling barbarian horsemen.

Each of the six baronies supplied troops to Ulgarth's army for the defense of their own lands. Each baron was responsible for the recruitment and support of these troops, which they paid for.[1][5] Barons had the choice of either appointing a field officer to command their contingents, or of serving as commanders themselves. Around 1358 DR, only one baron led their own forces,[5] Montar of Kaspar.[8] The king also maintained his own army.[5] The general of the nation's combined military around 1358 DR was Sinveri Trollkin, a renegade half-drow from Dambrath, but she ably led the armies of the country.[5] Together, these seven fighting forces were considered enough to defend against any invasion from the barbarian lands to the east, Dambrath, or one of the nations of the Shining Lands.[7]

Notably, the Ulgarthan military also employed "prison squads". Criminals convicted of lesser crimes had the option of serving out their sentence in the army. The prison squads typically patrolled the eastern border, guarding against barbarians.[1][20] The desertion rate was usually over 10%.[10]

The kingdom's naval shipyards, called Panglassest, were based in the city of Kelazzan. The city was well-defended by sea, with up to twenty warships ready to set sail when the need arose.[1][8]

The border between Ulgarth and Durpar, and with Var the Golden, was still heavily fortified and defended by the nations on both sides, despite nearly four hundred years of peace between them.[1][7]

The harbor of Orvyltar was defended by three huge ballistae purchased from Durpar and enchanted by a mage from Halruaa.[28][8]

Law & OrderEdit

As per the feudal system, law and order in Ulgarth were the domain of the king and his barons. A baron, or a "baron's justice" representing them, were responsible for the majority of law enforcement, routine trials, and punishment of convicted criminals within their baronies. In their barony, a baron's word was law. However, anyone, freeman or serf, could appeal to a "king's justice".[1][5]

A king's justice was a representative of the king in legal matters, described as an officer of the king's peace. In addition to handling appeals, they dealt with crimes against the kingdom, including espionage and treason, as well as cases in which nobles had been accused of a crime. A king's justice was responsible for holding trials and delivering sentences in such cases. King's justices travelled the realm constantly; most towns could expect to have a king's justice visit once a month on a regular basis, and even small hamlets would be visited at least once each year.[5]

Appointed justices, whether a baron's justice or a king's justice, were typically retired military officers, considered to be experienced in life and the world, or scholars who'd studied the law closely. However, priests could never serve as justices, owing to King Caladorn's law and the separation of church and state, and they had no active or direct role in making or enforcing laws. Nevertheless, appointed justices were able to hire priests and mages to use magic such as a truth spell, to aid in an investigation or trial. Expenses came from the king's treasury.[1][5]

Finally, anyone who claimed to have been a victim of circumstance could seek an audience with the king to have their case heard. King Drasna believed the justice of the king should be denied to none, and tempered his judgments with great mercy. As result, justice in Ulgarth was normally swift yet fair, and Ulgarthans of all classes were satisfied with the results; King Drasna had no plans to change it.[5][6]

However, justice in Ulgarth was also harsh and strict. Citizens convicted of capital crimes like murder or treason were sentenced to a quick execution. Lesser crimes like theft carried severe punishments, but the convict could choose their sentence. Instead of serving time in prison, a convict could choose to be reduced to the status of a serf and serve the baron, usually by working in their fields, or to serve in the army and defend the realm. Few chose prison, so the kingdom's prisoner population was very small.[1][20] However, the desertion rate was high, usually over 10%.[10]

Notably, whether in prison, in the fields, or in the army, once they'd done their time, an ex-convict was free to resume their previous status in Ulgarthan society. Their record was clean and they suffered almost no stigma, especially if they'd served their sentence in the army.[1][20] In fact, prisoners who displayed valor in battle could earn ranks and titles, and several convicted thieves were even ennobled.[20] For example, the notorious bandit Maelin Rascalin elected to serve his sentence in the army, eventually rising to become one of Ulgarth's greatest generals. After defending the realm from a barbarian horde, he was made baron of Suormpar. Such stories persuaded convicts to choose dangerous army service over safe prison time.[20][11]


Ulgarth was a feudal monarchy with many knights, so the most commonly worshiped deity of Ulgarth was Torm the True, patron of knights and duty. All Ulgarthan knights paid homage to the Loyal Fury. The largest temple in Ulgarth was the temple of Torm located in the capital Orvyltar, where the king himself prayed.[2]

Other popular deities were Tymora, the Lady Luck, seen as patron of the adventurous; and Lathander the Morninglord, god of the dawn and renewal. Most of the large cities held temples to these deities. The clergies of Lathander and Tymora had excellent relations with the clergy of Torm, and with each other.[2] Some important Ulgarthans worshiped Tyr the Just, seen as a god of war and justice.[5][6] Ulgarth also tolerated many other non-evil gods.[5]

However, religion did not dominate the society and culture of Ulgarth as it did across the Golden Water. Ulgarthans believed firmly in the separation of church and state, of the spiritual and the secular.[1] As decreed by King Caladorn the Wise, priests could not judge a person's worldly behavior, and they took no active part in making and enforcing laws, only aiding the king's and barons' justices just as mages did.[1][5]


The population of Ulgarth was primarily human. Although all the goodly races were welcomed, few others fit in well the feudal society, which halflings found restrictive, and dwarves, elves, and gnomes found uncomfortable. Elves and gnomes drew some stares from passers-by, particularly in the smaller communities.[1][20] Nevertheless, a population of dwarves mined and prospected in the Galuil Mountains, but they rarely lingered long in Ulgarth.[1][2] Gray dwarves dwelled deep below the heart of this range, and were likely to come into conflict with the surface dwarves when they met.[6]

Goblinoids, on the other hand, were unwelcome and orcs were usually killed on sight. This was especially the case when rumors spread of an orc horde preparing to sweep down from the Dustwall Mountains.[2]


Ulgarth 1

A typical settlement in Ulgarth.

Formerly having a highly structured caste system,[1][5] Ulgarthan society relaxed into a meritocratic feudal system comprising nobles, freemen, and serfs. Although a person was born to their social class, anyone could rise above their station through their deeds. Promotions for valor on the battlefield were enough to make a serf into a free man,[2] and ultimately make a convict into a noble.[20] A person's success or failure was thought an accurate representation of their ability.[2]

Ulgarthan peasants were treated better than in most feudal societies. The nobility all agreed that every citizen of their country was important to its safety. Thus, the peasantry believed life in Ulgarth to be the best life there could be.[2]



As a whole, Ulgarthans fervently believed their way of life was best and were fiercely nationalistic. They were also intensely paranoid about the neighboring realms.[2]

Ulgarthan knights were honor-bound to show chivalry and concern for women. Very few women of the kingdom and fewer half-elves became knights, yet two of the realm's finest knights were half-elf women: the adventurer Landswith Meilin[6] and Sinveri Trollkin, general of the army.[5]

Martial trainingEdit

For the sake of the country's defense, no one was restricted from carrying a weapon, even the peasants. Nobles trained themselves in swordplay and organized regular drills and military training for their serfs, which both kept them busy and uncomplaining and kept a well-trained militia on hand. No noble neglected this training, whatever their views on the lower classes, simply because so many of their peers did the same.[2]

Thus, those with skill at arms and instruction were always in high demand. Retired adventurers were especially sought after to serve as weapon-masters and train younger generations.[2]

However, the hot and humid climate in Ulgarth could make wearing heavy armor uncomfortable to the point of being fatal. No knights wore metal armor. Even leather armor was uncommon among the knights of the realm, owing to the uncomfortable heat wearing it produced. Most went entirely unarmored.[2] Only one, Landswith Meilin, was renowned for wearing full plate mail.[6]


Those with money spent it. The rich nobles were surrounded by luxury, and even the most exotic goods were taken for granted, all thanks to the far-reaching Durpari traders. Wealthy noblewomen were expected to wear the finest apparel and spent grand amounts on clothes simply in competition against one another.[2] Meanwhile, the excellent Dambraii horses of Dambrath were much sought-after by every knight who wished to be renowned.[8]

Women also almost universally streaked their natural dark hair with a chalky white cosmetic substance called fiertallin, harvested locally from the river Xon. All men shaved regularly, if they could; nobles were always smooth-chinned, with neither bear nor mustache. To have any kind of facial hair was considered by all to be a mark of a peasant, of being someone who couldn't afford shaving equipment. Having a beard in the heat and humidity of Ulgarth could also be quite uncomfortable, making this a somewhat practical habit.[2]

These customs and hair fashions made hairdressing the most well-paid job a peasant could do. A master hairdresser was highly prized to Ulgarth's society.[2]


The Ulgarthan feudal system and national pride made foreign professional adventurers unwelcome: they were considered to be nothing more than common peasants or scurrilous rogues. Only a native Ulgarthan or a foreigner who defended the kingdom against its enemies would be treated as an equal. King Drasna himself had an early adventuring career, and one of the most notable was Landswith Meilin.[6]

Paladins and priests of goodly gods, especially Torm, were always popular and made welcome. Mages were somewhat feared, and known thieves were shunned. [6]


The language of Ulgarth was the Ulgarthic dialect of Devic. This was a Durpari tongue from Imaskari languages family, and was also spoken in the city of Solon.[3][4] However, the chief language spoken by the majority of the Ulgarthan population was Common, the trade tongue of Faerûn.[2]

There were two common demonym and adjectival forms for the realm—people and things from Ulgarth could be called "Ulgarthan" or "Ulgarthian".[1][2]

Notable locationsEdit

Other settlements
Barbarians' RoadNoble's Road[7]



  1. There's an apparent contradiction in the history here. The Horde states that the southerners tried to prevent an Imaskari conquest "over four thousand years" before the setting date of 1359 DR (before −2641 DR. However, The Grand History of the Realms places a successful invasion much earlier in Imaskar's history. This suggests the southern lands were in revolt against Imaskar at the time, an error in the history, or another explanation.
  2. This was "over four thousand years" before the setting date of 1359 DR, that is, sometime before −1641 DR.
  3. This was also "over three thousand years" before 1359 DR, before −1641 DR. It is assumed that "Ulgarian" is another or older demonym for Ulgarth; this is supported by the central role of the river Xon/Gaya in the Padhran faith. The idea of Prince Surtava and his kingdom seems at odds with Ulgarth's "centuries of dark barbarism" described in Shining South at the time, but there is plenty of time in which a kingdom or princedom may have arisen, or else Surtava is better described as the son of a barbarian warlord.
  4. Six baronies were mentioned in the sources, but only fives baronies have been given. It is possible that the capital city of Orvyltar is also the sixth barony, perhaps under the direct control of the king or under another, unnamed baron. Stonesmith Hammerhand, a dwarf noble described as "chief defender of Orvyltar", might also be the baron of that city.
  5. The status of Ulgarth in 4th-edition Forgotten Realms and in the 15th century is unknown.
  6. The Shining South (1993) contradicts itself several times on whether coffee comes from Durpar or Ulgarth. Since the sourcebook is introduced by a Halruaan, and all Ulgarth's produce comes through Durpar, the discrepancy is easily explained as an in-universe error, but not easily resolved.


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 Thomas Reid (October 2004). Shining South. (Wizards of the Coast), pp. 179–180. ISBN 0-7869-3492-1.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 76. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Thomas M. Costa (1999). “Speaking in Tongues”. In Dave Gross ed. Dragon Annual #4 (TSR, Inc), pp. 26, 29.
  4. 4.0 4.1 David Cook (1990). The Horde (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), p. 17. ISBN 978-0880388689.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 74. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 80. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 73. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 77. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  9. Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 56. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), pp. 79–80. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), pp. 78, 79. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  12. Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 53. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  13. Brian R. James and Ed Greenwood (September, 2007). The Grand History of the Realms. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7869-4731-7.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Thomas Reid (October 2004). Shining South. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 117. ISBN 0-7869-3492-1.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Thomas Reid (October 2004). Shining South. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 8. ISBN 0-7869-3492-1.
  16. 16.0 16.1 David Cook (1990). The Horde (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0880388689.
  17. Troy Denning (1990). Storm Riders. (TSR, Inc), pp. 6, 12, 37. ISBN 0-88038-834-X.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Brian R. James and Ed Greenwood (September, 2007). The Grand History of the Realms. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 58. ISBN 978-0-7869-4731-7.
  19. Thomas Reid (October 2004). Shining South. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 118. ISBN 0-7869-3492-1.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 75. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  21. Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), pp. 66, 79. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Thomas Reid (October 2004). Shining South. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 121. ISBN 0-7869-3492-1.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Thomas Reid (October 2004). Shining South. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 175. ISBN 0-7869-3492-1.
  24. Scott Bennie (1990). Old Empires. (TSR, Inc), p. 9. ISBN 0-8803-8821-8.
  25. David Cook (1990). The Horde (Volume II). (TSR, Inc), p. 104. ISBN 978-0880388689.
  26. David Cook (1990). The Horde (Volume I). (TSR, Inc), p. 50. ISBN 978-0880388689.
  27. Bruce R. Cordell, Ed Greenwood, Chris Sims (August 2008). Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide. (Wizards of the Coast), p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7869-4924-3.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 2. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  29. Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), pp. 2, 61. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  30. Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South (Cover sheet). (TSR, Inc). ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  31. Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), pp. 8, back cover. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  32. Tom Prusa (1993). The Shining South. (TSR, Inc), p. 54. ISBN 1-56076-595-X.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Karen Wynn Fonstad (August 1990). The Forgotten Realms Atlas. (TSR, Inc), p. 11. ISBN 978-0880388573.


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